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  一宇   二柱   三極   四符   五鑑   六匕   七釜   八籌   九藥

    一宇宇者道也   關尹子曰:非有道不可言,不可言即道,非有道不可思,不可思即道。天物 怒流,人事錯錯然,若若乎回也,戛戛乎鬥也,勿勿乎似而非也。而爭之,而介 之,而哯之,而嘖之,而去之,而要之。言之如吹影,思之如鏤塵。聖智造迷, 鬼神不識。惟不可為,不可致,不可測,不可分,故曰天曰命...

On the Sublime –by: Unknown

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[Transcriber's Note: The printed text shows most sections (Roman numerals) as a continuous block, with chapter numbers in the margin. In this e text, chapters are given as separate paragraphs determined by sentence breaks, with continuing quotation marks supplied where necessary. Except for footnotes, any brackets are from the original text. Greek has been transliterated and shown between marks.]



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Menexenus (ΜΕΝΕΞΕΝΟΣ) is thought to have been written by Plato (ΠΛΑΤΩΝ). The dialogue consists of Socrates (ΣΩΚΡΑΤΗΣ) recounting a funeral oration he claims to have learned from the female philosopher Aspasia (ΑΣΠΑΣΙΑ) who may have been wealthy, a courtesan or both.

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by Plato

(see Appendix I)

Translated by Benjamin Jowett


It seems impossible to separate by any exact line the genuine writings of Plato from the spurious. The only external evidence to them which is of much value is that of Aristotle; ...

The Mabinogion

Sample a moment of magic realism from the Red Book of Hergest:

On one side of the river he saw a flock of white sheep, and on the other a flock of black sheep. And whenever one of the white sheep bleated, one of the black sheep would cross over, and become white; and when one of the black sheep bleated, one of the white sheep would cross over, and become black.

Before passing on to the Mabinogion proper, Lady Charlotte Guest devotes Volume I of her compilation of medieval Welsh tales to three brief romances of Arthur’s Court. The centrepiece is the story of Peredur, the Dumb Y...


Statesman (Ancient Greek: Πολιτικ) discusses God's role in maintaining the universe and describes the statesman as a good shepherd who promotes intermarriage between the orderly and courageous.

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By Plato

Translated by Benjamin Jowett


In the Phaedrus, the Republic, the Philebus, the Parmenides, and the Sophist, we may observe the tendency of Plato to combine two or more subjects or different aspects of the same subject in a single dialogue. In the Sophist and Statesman especially we note that the discussion is partly ...

Ten Books on Architecture

On Architecture is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect Vitruvius and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus as a guide for building projects. The work is one of the most important sources of modern knowledge of Roman building methods as well as the planning and design of structures, both large (aqueducts, buildings, baths, harbours) and small (machines, measuring devices, instruments). He is also the prime source of the famous story of Archimedes and his bath-time discovery.

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Eryxias (ΕΡΥΞΙΑΣ) may not have been written by Plato (ΠΛΑΤΩΝ). The dialogue discusses whether wealth has value and what the aim of philosophy should be.

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By a Platonic Imitator (see Appendix II)

Translated by Benjamin Jowett


The two dialogues which are translated in the second appendix are not mentioned by Aristotle, or by any early authority, and have no claim to be ascribed to Plato. They are examples of Platonic dialogues to be assigned probably to the second or third generation after Plato, when his writings we...

Laws –by: Plato

Νμοι (Laws) is Plato's final dialogue written after his attempt to advise the tyrant Dionysius II of Syracuse. The dialogue takes place between: an Athenian Stranger (Socrates? A god in human form?); the quiet Lacedaemonian Megillus; and the Cretan Cleinias. The Stranger asks whether humans live to be more effective at waging war or if there is something more important a legislator should seek to achieve. During their pilgrimage Cleinias discloses his role in the establishment of a new colony and the three discuss what would make the colony perfect including: location; a fixed population s...


Euthydemus (Εθδημο) and Dionysodorus the sophists discuss the meaning of words with Socrates.

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by Plato

Translated by Benjamin Jowett


The Euthydemus, though apt to be regarded by us only as an elaborate jest, has also a very serious purpose. It may fairly claim to be the oldest treatise on logic; for that science originates in the misunderstandings which necessarily accompany the first efforts of speculation. Several of the fallacies which are satirized in it reappear in the Sophistici Elenchi of Aristotle and are re...

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Yoga sutras by Patanjali is a seminal work in yoga, this book is more about control of mind and the true goal of yoga. The sutras are extremely brief, and the translation in neat English makes it very easy for people to understand the ancient Sanskrit text. It starts with the birth and growth of spiritual man through the control of mind. In all, this is a "all in one" book for yoga philosophy written by the master himself.

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THE YOGA SUTRAS OF PATANJALI "The Book of the Spiritual Man"

An I...

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